Monday, December 2, 2013

Labor Charter

The Labor Charter

Art. 1. The Italian nation is an organism, having aims, life, and
means of action superior to those of the single or grouped
individuals who compose it. It is a moral, political and economic
unity which is completely realized in the Fascist State.

Art. 2. Labor in all forms, intellectual, technical and manual, is a
social duty. In this sense, and in this sense only, is it protected by
the State. From the national point of view all production is a unit;
its objects are unitary and can be defined as the well-being of the
producers and the development of national strength.

Art. 3. Trade or syndicate organization is free. But only the
syndicate regularly recognized and placed under the control of the
State has the legal right to represent the entire group of employers
or of workers for which it is constituted, to guard their interests
before the state or other organized economic groups, to draw up
collective labor contracts, obligatory on all those belonging to the
same group, to impose contributions (taxes) on them and exercise
delegated functions of public interest relating to them.

Art. 4. In collective labor contracts, the solidarity of the various
factors of production finds its concrete expression in the
reconciliation of the opposing interests of employers and workers,
and in their subordination to the superior interests of production.

Art. 5. The labor court is the organ through which the State
intervenes to solve labor controversies, whether they deal with the
observance of contracts or other existing standards, or with the
determination of new labor conditions.

 Art. 6. Legally organized trade organizations assure legal equality
between employers and workers, maintain the discipline of
production and labor, and promote its perfection. A corporation
constitutes the organization of one field of production and
represents its interests as a whole. Since the interests of production
are national interests, the corporations are recognized by law as
state organizations by virtue of this representation.

Art. 7. The Corporate State considers private initiative in the field
of production the most efficacious and most useful instrument in
the interest of the nation. Private organization of production being
a function of national interest, the organization of the enterprise is
responsible to the State for the direction of its production.
Reciprocity of the rights and duties is derived from the
collaboration of the productive forces. The technician, office
employee and worker is an active collaborator in the economic
undertaking, the direction of which is the right of the employer,
who has the responsibility for it.

Art. 8. Trade associations of employers are obliged to promote in
every way the increase and perfection of products and a reduction
in costs. The representatives of those who exercise a liberal
profession or an art, and the associations of public employees, join
in the guardianship of the interests of art, science and letters, in the
perfection of production and in the attainment of temporal aims of
the corporate system.

Art. 9. The intervention of the State in economic production takes
place only when private initiative is lacking or is insufficient, or
when the political interests of the State are involved. Such
intervention may assume the form of outside control,
encouragement or direct management.

Art. 10. Labor disputes which involve groups can have no resort to
the Labor Court until the corporation has exhausted its efforts for
reconciliation. When individuals are involved in relation to the
interpretation of collective contracts, the workers associations are
empowered to attempt settlement. . . .

Art. 11. The trade associations are obliged to regulate by means of
collective contracts the labor relations between the employers and
employees. . . . Every collective labor contract, under penalty of
nullification, must contain precise statements ... of the amount and
manner of payment of wages, and the hours of labor.

Art. 12. The syndicate operation, the corporations' mediation and
the labor court decisions shall guarantee the relation between
wages and normal living costs. . . .

Art. 13. Losses due to crises in business and the fluctuations in
exchange must be equally divided between the two elements
(capital and labor). . . .

Art. 14. Wages should be paid as best suited to the needs of
employee and the undertaking. When payment is by piecework
. . . suitable weekly or fortnightly accountings must be
furnished. Night work . . . must be paid at higher rates than day
work. . . .

Art. 15. Employees have the right of a weekly rest day,
Sunday. . . . Collective contracts . . . shall ensure respect for civil
and religious holidays. Employees must scrupulously and earnestly
observe working hours.

Art. 16. After a year's uninterrupted service in a concern doing
continuous work, the employee has the right to an annual holiday
with pay.

Art. 17. In companies functioning the year round the employee has
the right in case of discharge through no fault of his own to
compensation based on the years of service. Likewise, in case of

Art. 18. The transfer of a firm into new hands shall not affect the
labor contracts. . . . Illness of an employee does not cancel his
contract. Call to service in the army or navy or Fascist militia shall
not cause the dismissal of an employee.

Art. 19. Infractions of discipline, and acts disturbing the normal
functioning of a concern shall he punished by fine, suspension, or
immediate discharge without compensation. . . .

Art. 20. Newly hired employees shall have a period of trial in
which the right to cancel the contract is reciprocal and payment
only for actual time of work.

Art. 21. Collective labor contracts extends its benefits to workers
at home. . . .

Art. 22. The State shall ascertain and control employment and
unemployment since these are the indices of production and labor.

Art. 23. Labor exchanges (employment bureaus) shall be
controlled by the Corporations. Employers shall be required to
engage workers through these exchanges, with freedom of choice
among names inscribed except that other things being equal,
preference must be given to members of the Fascist Party and of
Fascist syndicates in order of seniority of registration.

Art. 24. Professional trades associations must practice selective
action among members for the purpose of increasing technical skill
and moral value.

Art. 25. The corporations must see that the laws are observed
governing safety, preventing accidents, sanitation.

Art. 26. Insurance is an excellent example of the spirit of
collaboration between classes. Employers and employees
contribute to the cost proportionately. . . .

Art 27. The Fascist State proposes to bring about:
1. Improvement in accident insurance.
2. Improvement in extension of maternity assurance.
3. Compulsory insurance against occupational diseases and
tuberculosis, first step towards compulsory insurance against all
4. Improvement in unemployment insurance.
5. Adoption of special marriage endowment for young workers.

Art. 28. It is the duty of the employees associations to protect
members administratively and legally in problems arising in
connection with accidents or other form of social insurance. . . .

Art. 29. The associations must provide relief for workers they
represent whether they be members or non-members. . . .

Art. 30. Education and training, especially technical training, shall
be one of the chief duties of the professional trade associations
towards members and non-members. They shall support the
Dopolavoro (recreational institution) and other national
educational enterprises.

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